History of Israel - Wikipedia. The History of Israel encompasses the Jewish history in the Land of Israel, as well as the history of the modern State of Israel. Modern Israel and the West Bank are roughly located on the site of the ancient kingdoms of Israel and Judah. It is the birthplace of the Hebrew language and of the Abrahamic religions, and contains sites sacred to Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Samaritanism, Druze and Bah.
It was a focal point of conflict between Christianity and Islam between 1. Crusades was part of the Syrian province of first the Mamluk Sultanate and then the Ottoman Empire until the British conquest in 1. A Jewish national movement, Zionism, emerged in the late- 1.
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Following the British capture of Ottoman territories in the Levant, the Balfour Declaration in World War I and the formation of the Mandate of Palestine, Aliyah (Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel) increased, causing Arab. Israeli independence in 1. Jews from both Europe and the Muslim countries to Israel, and of Arabs from Israel, followed by the extensive Arab. In 1. 97. 9 an uneasy Egypt. In 1. 99. 3, Israel signed Oslo I Accord with the Palestine Liberation Organization, followed by establishment of the Palestinian National Authority and in 1.
Israel. Despite efforts to finalize the peace agreement, the conflict continues to play a major role in Israeli and international political, social and economic life. The economy of Israel was initially primarily socialist and the country dominated by social democratic parties until the 1. Since then the Israeli economy has gradually moved to capitalism and a free market economy, partially retaining the social welfare system.
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Prehistory. The oldest evidence of early humans in the territory of modern Israel, dating to 1. Ubeidiya near the Sea of Galilee. Other groups include 1. Acheulean industry, the Bizat Ruhama group and Gesher Bnot Yaakov. The oldest fossils of anatomically modern humans found outside Africa are the Skhul and Qafzeh hominids, who lived in northern Israel 1. While alternative translations exist, the majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as . All modern alphabetical writing systems are descended from this writing.
It was written using the Paleo- Hebrew alphabet. Villages had populations of up to 3. The Bible states that King David founded a dynasty of kings and that his son Solomon built a Temple. Yigael Yadin's excavations at Hazor, Megiddo, Beit Shean and Gezer uncovered structures that he and others have argued date from his reign. The Bible's Books of Kings states that soon after the split Pharoh . An inscription over a gate at Karnak in Egypt recounts such an invasion by Pharoh Sheshonq I. The Philistine kingdom was also destroyed.
The Assyrians sent most of the northern Israelite kingdom into exile, thus creating the . The Samaritans claim to be descended from survivors of the Assyrian conquest.
An Israelite revolt (7. Sargon's son, Sennacherib, tried and failed to conquer Judah. Assyrian records say he leveled 4. Jerusalem, leaving after receiving extensive tribute. The books are known as Deuteronomist and considered to be a major key step in the emergence of Monotheism in Judah.
They were written at a time that Assyria was weakened by the emergence of Babylon and may be a committing to text of more ancient verbal traditions. According to the Hebrew Bible, he destroyed Solomon's Temple and exiled the Jews to Babylon.
The defeat was also recorded by the Babylonians. Babylonian and Biblical sources suggest that the Judean king, Jehoiachin, switched allegiances between the Egyptians and the Babylonians and that invasion was a punishment for allying with Babylon's principal rival, Egypt. The exiled Jews may have been restricted to the elite. Jehoiachin was eventually released by the Babylonians (see Jehoiachin's Rations Tablets) and according to both the Bible and the Talmud, the Judean royal family (the Davidic line) continued as head of the exile in Babylon (the Exilarch). In 5. 38 BCE, Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered Babylon and took over its empire. Cyrus issued a proclamation granting subjugated nations (including the people of Judah) religious freedom (for the original text see the Cyrus Cylinder).
According to the Hebrew Bible 5. Judeans, led by Zerubabel, returned to Judah and rebuilt the temple.
A second group of 5,0. Ezra and Nehemiah, returned to Judah in 4. BCE although non- Jews wrote to Cyrus to try to prevent their return. Modern scholars believe that the final Hebrew versions of the Torah and Books of Kingsdate from this period, that the returning Israelites adopted an Aramaic script (also known as the Ashuri alphabet), which they brought back from Babylon; this is the current Hebrew script.
The Hebrew Calendar closely resembles the Babylonian calendar and probably dates from this period. Sometime thereafter, the first translation of the Hebrew Bible, the Septuagint, was begun in Alexandria.
After Alexander's death, his generals fought over the territory he had conquered. Judah became the frontier between the Seleucid Empire and Ptolemaic Egypt, eventually becoming part of the Seleucid Empire in 2. BCE at the battle of Panium. In the 2nd century BCE, Seleucid ruler Antiochus IV Epiphanes tried to eradicate Judaism in favour of Hellenistic religion. This provoked the 1.
The Books of the Maccabees describe the uprising and the end of Greek rule. A Jewish party called the Hasideans opposed both Hellenism and the revolt but eventually gave their support to the Maccabees. Modern interpretations see this period as a civil war between Hellenized and orthodox forms of Judaism. As part of the struggle against Hellenistic civilization, the Pharisee leader Simeon ben Shetach established the first schools based around meeting houses. Justice was administered by the Sanhedrin, which was a Rabbincal assembly and law court whose leader was known as the Nasi.